Happy Christmas from the TRIANGLE Consortium

We are sadly coming to the end of a very successful three years in the TRIANGLE project. We have exceeded our projected goals including attracting many applicants from industry and institutes across Europe, testing the mobile devices and software applications of those applicants, and very proudly, defining a framework for the testing of Quality of Experience of devices and applications using 5G networks. We have contributed significantly to the furthering of testing and certifying 5G devices and applications for industry, in a very meaningful and practical way. Not least of which we have contributed to the Global Certification Forum and indeed had a meeting in San Diego this week.

We have had a prolific number of weighty scientific papers, presentations and demos at major annual events such as MWC, EuCNC and Globecomm to name a few. It has been a super consortium to work with and we have enjoyed every minute of it.

We will produce one final newsletter next year to finish up. Thanks for tuning in!

Happy Christmas to you and your families and a peaceful and prosperous New Year!

From the TRIANGLE Consortium

TRIANGLE to present results of 5G application and device test to the GCF Steering Group

San Diego, 11 – 13 December 2018

TRIANGLE presented a contribution around 5G user experience measurement for device and application to the Global Certification Forum. The presentation took place during the Steering Group meeting #77 in San Diego, USA.

The TRIANGLE consortium has been working hard over the last 3 years to develop a framework which can be used for quantifying the user experience for device and application in 5G networks. This ground-breaking work has led to a large set of insights, technical documents and a series of experiments performed with leading edge companies for device and application development. The TRIANGLE consortium is happy to report that our work has been presented to leading bodies in the 5G certification area.

The Global Certification Forum (GCF) enables the global wireless industry to deliver a connected world, with mobile and IoT device certification program that ensure quality, connectivity and interoperability, whatever the technology. GCF today has over 315 dynamic members from major operators, manufacturers and the test industry, working collaboratively and in association with key industry partners on the successful delivery of 5G and IoT connectivity. For more information, please visit: https://www.globalcertificationforum.org

TRIANGLE also recommends interested parties to read the following document published by NGMN: Definition of the testing framework for the NGMN 5g pre-commercial networks trials dated from January 2018.

TRIANGLE project announce the release of the QoE evaluation framework

One of the key objectives of the Triangle project was to develop an automated process for evaluating the QoE (Quality of Experience) for the end user of an application or a device. The success of 5G (the fifth generation of mobile communications), and to some extent that of 4G, depends on its capability to seamlessly deliver applications and services with good QoE. Along with the user, QoE is important to network operators, product manufacturers (both hardware and software) and service providers. However, QoE as such, is not well defined for devices or applications and QoE measurements require intensive human experiments. It is therefore currerntly difficult to assess QoE at the service level.

The TRIANGLE project has been working on QoE aspects to advance the state of the art. The main contribution of the TRIANGLE project is the provision of a framework that generalizes QoE computation and enables the execution of extensive and repeatable test campaigns to obtain meaningful QoE scores. The TRIANGLE project has also defined a methodology, which is based on the transformation and aggregation of KPIs, its transformation into synthetic Mean Opinion Score (MOS) values and its aggregation over the different domains and use cases. The process produces a final TRIANGLE mark, a single quality score that could eventually be used to certify applications. The approach developed in TRIANGLE is a methodology flexible enough to generalize the computation of QoE for any application/service. The methodology has been validated testing the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) implementation in media player Exoplayer.

The complete work on the QoE evaluation framework has been released in TRIANGLE Deliverable D2.7 which can be requested from the consortium. Aside from the deliverable, the TRIANGLE consortium will also shortly publish a paper entitled “QoE Evaluation: The TRIANGLE Testbed Approach” in the special issue Testbeds for Future Wireless Networks of the Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing journal https://www.hindawi.com.

TRIANGLE presented at UCAAT

TRIANGLE was represented by DEKRA at the 6th User Conference on Advanced Automated Testing (UCAAT). The TRIANGLE presentation was on “Testing Solution for Virtual Reality Applications” and the speaker bio of DEKRA’s Carlos Cardenas can be found here. The ETSI User Conference on Advanced Automated Testing (UCAAT) took place in Paris between 16-18 October 2018 and gathered users, vendors and service providers around testing and automation.

The conference was organized by Testing Solutions and Services, and sponsored by Sogeti, Kalifast, Conformiq and Spirent. The event was supported by ETSI’s Technical Committee on Method for Testing and Specification.


TRIANGLE presented a paper at the IEEE CAMAD in September around the topic of 5G apps, testing and certification. Building on the experience on 4G and App testing methodologies, the TRIANGLE project is pursuing the creation of a 5G certification scheme, together with the development of a testing platform that can make it feasible and practical. In the paper, TRIANGLE presented the initial exploration around defining the certification scheme and how to measure this in practice for mobile applications. YouTube API and ExoPlayer applications are used as use cases for extracting a sets of Key Performance Indicators for comparison in the paper.

In the TRIANGLE project, ensuring the proper functioning of 5G Apps and services for the upcoming 5G networks is paramount and a homogenous testing and certification scheme can help achieve it.


Results of applications in TRIANGLE Open Calls 5 and 6

The TRIANGLE project held its final set of Open Calls for experiments OC5/6 and has accepted a diverse range of interesting applicants. After a number of high-quality applications from a range of sectors, the selection team have decided on the following applicants:

OC5: LucidWeb


The TRIANGLE team are delighted to have these companies using our latest Testbed release and some of the Extensions that have been added from our Extension Open Calls. These applications cover a number of interesting areas including:

  • Virtual Reality
  • Location tracking and lifeline communications
  • Automotive and Logistics

In addition to these applicants, we have a diverse set of external users who have applied to use the Testbed on a free basis when there is additional capacity. If you are interested to find out more about using the TRIANGLE Testbed on a non-funded basis then more information can be found at https://www.triangle-project.eu/testbed-access/. The results of the previous and recent Open Calls will be showcased on our website at the end of December.

Showcase of TRIANGLE experiments

Here we bring you a selection of experiments from different companies and institutes that were successfully performed on the TRIANGLE testbed.

Testing a 4G towards 5G remote access point with centralised RAN

The Wireless System Lab (Wisylab) is dedicated to research, link-level simulation, design and implementation of physical layer (PHY) components of wireless communication systems, using software defined radio (SDR) techniques. WisyLab is part of Politecnico di Milano.

The experiment carried out on the TRIANGLE testbed was called “Dual Radio-over-Copper (RoC) Remotization for Multi-RAT Centralized-RAN Architecture in 5G Deployments.”

Next generation (5G and beyond) comms networks are expected to incorporate the pre-existing LTE and WiFi connectivity of all interconnected devices with multiple available interfaces, guaranteeing highrate/low-latency communications. In this context, Dual-RoC is the integration of Multi Radio Access Technology (RAT) into a copper-based Centralized Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture.

The objective of Dual-RoC Experiment is to experimentally observe and demonstrate the feasibility of the interplay between an all-analog C-RAN architecture based on LAN cables and Multi-RAT.

Results: Dual-RoC demonstrated the feasibility of carrying both MIMO LTE and WiFi signals over the same LAN cable using an all-analog relaying by selected mapping of IF frequencies onto the cable twisted pairs. The performance degradation experienced for high MCS and high IF is mainly due to low signal power received at the user device due to attenuation introduced by the analog relay over cable.

“Thanks to the experiment I conducted within TRIANGLE, it was possible to bring the academy closer to the industry, thus bridging the gap between theory and practice and getting unique results!”

Testing of improved scheduling algorithms of a 4G towards 5G software defined RAN

IS Wireless is an advanced wireless communications company who are developing protocols, simulators and IP algorithms for 4G and 5G networks.

The experiment carried out on the TRIANGLE testbed was called “PHYSCHED: Design space exploration and performance testing for PHY & scheduler.”

The motivation of ISWireless to experiment on the TRIANGLE testbed was to explore the design space for improvement and further implementation of an LTE eNB scheduling algorithm.

There were two objectives for the experiment 1) Design space exploration of standard-compliant environment for LTE eNB Scheduler optimization 2) Testing and validation of LTE PHY Lab downlink receiver processing chain.

Results: In the Scheduler experiment, the KPIs measured and returned by both UXM and TACS4 were successfully analyzed dependent on the transmission configuration and a known channel profile for multiple scenarios.

ISWireless says “We had the opportunity to use the specialized equipment to explore a design space for the scheduling algorithms we have gained a solid ground for improvement and further implementation of our solutions for 4G/5G base stations.”

Testing how a Chatbot behaves in a 4G towards 5G context

INFOLYSiS is a highly innovative SME, which realises innovative technologies and exploits cutting-edge research to deliver state-of-the-art services and products. IoT interoperability, SDN/NFV, 5G, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Video Quality, Cloud computing, Mobile Communications. The experiment on the TRIANGLE testbed was 5G-Bot: Evaluation of 5G on QoE of Chatbot applications.

The experiment carried out on the TRIANGLE testbed was called “5G-Bot: Evaluation of 5G on QoE of Chatbot applications”.

The objective of the 5G-Bot experiment was to test the behaviour of chatbot applications under different mobile reception conditions, network traffic, processing power schemes and battery utilisation plans in order to quantify and assess their impact on the QoE level and to stress the reliability of the chatbot app under different network conditions.; and while measuring power usage.

Results: Infolysis acquired experience and documentation on which factors and parameters may affect the performance of chatbot apps and up to what degree of severity. 5G-Bot experiment gave the opportunity to Infolysis to create a performance map under different scenarios, KPIs and metrics.

Infolysis says “I added value to the performance credibility of chatbot applications and improved users QoE!”

Testing of cellular grid in 4G towards 5G network context

Comsensus have sensors to automatically track equipment overheating, energy consumption, the quality of the power in the grid, moisture level, etc. and that the automatically collected in-situ data integrates with the company IT infrastructure.

The experiment carried out on the TRIANGLE testbed was called “Cellular Grid: Cellular Networks for Real-Time Monitoring of Smart Grid.”

The scope in the smart grid industry has been extended to cover also elements like distributed energy resources, electric vehicles, protection relays, and metering devices, where wired communication is not cost effective to install and maintain. 5G can have comparable performance to wired infrastructure, allowing to discretize and network individual grid elements, which can then implement intelligent sensors and switching decisions to isolate faults, reroute power and self-heal the grid. This project evaluates the connectivity requirements of smart grid applications in 5G.

The objective of the experiment allowed Comsensus to emulate their PMU/PQM devices use in different real life (LTE Cat-3, LTE Cat-M1, LTE Cat-NB1) network scenarios and thereby appropriately select the technology and/or adjust their design.

Results: The Testbed was used to test the wireless link performance for different location and user density. The KPIs measured during the experiment include end-to-end delay and throughput. The results of the experiment confirmed that low throughput uplink with real-time constraints are viable using LTE Cat-3 even in the case of challenging channel conditions. In the high throughput scenario, the target throughput could not be reached in any of the predefined channel conditions.

Comsensus says “Thanks to TRIANGLE we were able shorten the product design cycle, obtain a set of measurements in a controlled environment & experiment with technologies not yet available commercially”

Please refer to the TRIANGLE website for the full details here: Showcase

Calling all 5G Mobile Application Developers!

The TRIANGLE testbed is open for applications from now until 14th September 2018 17.00 CET. We are offering SMEs with a mobile application that can clearly benefit from using 5G, the opportunity to test these applications on a state-of-the-art testbed to preview their performance. We have specific funding for this call of €45,000 (including VAT) to support a minimum number of 3 applications with a maximum amount of €15,000 (including VAT) each.

This testbed is located in the University of Malaga but can be accessed remotely. The Testbed enables a preview on how the application would perform in 5G network conditions. It contains Virtual Machines to install servers, provides Mobile Edge Computing capabilities, commercial phones (Android and iOS) to run the app, an extensive set of test cases and many other features. The Testbed provides opportunities to measure Quality of Experience for multi-media applications, in particular, those needing MPEG DASH support, which can be useful for streaming HD video, VR and other applications.

You can use this opportunity to save on your infrastructure costs and get some expert input on how to test your application so that it is 5G ready and future-proofed.

Also, if you have a hardware (such as NB-IoT) or VR application that does not qualify for this funded open call, please get in touch with us as we have a limited availability to accept applications without funding –the testbed can still be used with no charge for now.

Be sure to register your interest with a simple application form.

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