TRIANGLE presented a paper at the IEEE CAMAD in September around the topic of 5G apps, testing and certification. Building on the experience on 4G and App testing methodologies, the TRIANGLE project is pursuing the creation of a 5G certification scheme, together with the development of a testing platform that can make it feasible and practical. In the paper, TRIANGLE presented the initial exploration around defining the certification scheme and how to measure this in practice for mobile applications. YouTube API and ExoPlayer applications are used as use cases for extracting a sets of Key Performance Indicators for comparison in the paper.

In the TRIANGLE project, ensuring the proper functioning of 5G Apps and services for the upcoming 5G networks is paramount and a homogenous testing and certification scheme can help achieve it.

Results of applications in TRIANGLE Open Calls 5 and 6

The TRIANGLE project held its final set of Open Calls for experiments OC5/6 and has accepted a diverse range of interesting applicants. After a number of high-quality applications from a range of sectors, the selection team have decided on the following applicants:

OC5: LucidWeb


The TRIANGLE team are delighted to have these companies using our latest Testbed release and some of the Extensions that have been added from our Extension Open Calls. These applications cover a number of interesting areas including:

  • Virtual Reality
  • Location tracking and lifeline communications
  • Automotive and Logistics

In addition to these applicants, we have a diverse set of external users who have applied to use the Testbed on a free basis when there is additional capacity. If you are interested to find out more about using the TRIANGLE Testbed on a non-funded basis then more information can be found at The results of the previous and recent Open Calls will be showcased on our website at the end of December.

Showcase of TRIANGLE experiments

Here we bring you a selection of experiments from different companies and institutes that were successfully performed on the TRIANGLE testbed.

Testing a 4G towards 5G remote access point with centralised RAN

The Wireless System Lab (Wisylab) is dedicated to research, link-level simulation, design and implementation of physical layer (PHY) components of wireless communication systems, using software defined radio (SDR) techniques. WisyLab is part of Politecnico di Milano.

The experiment carried out on the TRIANGLE testbed was called “Dual Radio-over-Copper (RoC) Remotization for Multi-RAT Centralized-RAN Architecture in 5G Deployments.”

Next generation (5G and beyond) comms networks are expected to incorporate the pre-existing LTE and WiFi connectivity of all interconnected devices with multiple available interfaces, guaranteeing highrate/low-latency communications. In this context, Dual-RoC is the integration of Multi Radio Access Technology (RAT) into a copper-based Centralized Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture.

The objective of Dual-RoC Experiment is to experimentally observe and demonstrate the feasibility of the interplay between an all-analog C-RAN architecture based on LAN cables and Multi-RAT.

Results: Dual-RoC demonstrated the feasibility of carrying both MIMO LTE and WiFi signals over the same LAN cable using an all-analog relaying by selected mapping of IF frequencies onto the cable twisted pairs. The performance degradation experienced for high MCS and high IF is mainly due to low signal power received at the user device due to attenuation introduced by the analog relay over cable.

“Thanks to the experiment I conducted within TRIANGLE, it was possible to bring the academy closer to the industry, thus bridging the gap between theory and practice and getting unique results!”

Testing of improved scheduling algorithms of a 4G towards 5G software defined RAN

IS Wireless is an advanced wireless communications company who are developing protocols, simulators and IP algorithms for 4G and 5G networks.

The experiment carried out on the TRIANGLE testbed was called “PHYSCHED: Design space exploration and performance testing for PHY & scheduler.”

The motivation of ISWireless to experiment on the TRIANGLE testbed was to explore the design space for improvement and further implementation of an LTE eNB scheduling algorithm.

There were two objectives for the experiment 1) Design space exploration of standard-compliant environment for LTE eNB Scheduler optimization 2) Testing and validation of LTE PHY Lab downlink receiver processing chain.

Results: In the Scheduler experiment, the KPIs measured and returned by both UXM and TACS4 were successfully analyzed dependent on the transmission configuration and a known channel profile for multiple scenarios.

ISWireless says “We had the opportunity to use the specialized equipment to explore a design space for the scheduling algorithms we have gained a solid ground for improvement and further implementation of our solutions for 4G/5G base stations.”

Testing how a Chatbot behaves in a 4G towards 5G context

INFOLYSiS is a highly innovative SME, which realises innovative technologies and exploits cutting-edge research to deliver state-of-the-art services and products. IoT interoperability, SDN/NFV, 5G, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Video Quality, Cloud computing, Mobile Communications. The experiment on the TRIANGLE testbed was 5G-Bot: Evaluation of 5G on QoE of Chatbot applications.

The experiment carried out on the TRIANGLE testbed was called “5G-Bot: Evaluation of 5G on QoE of Chatbot applications”.

The objective of the 5G-Bot experiment was to test the behaviour of chatbot applications under different mobile reception conditions, network traffic, processing power schemes and battery utilisation plans in order to quantify and assess their impact on the QoE level and to stress the reliability of the chatbot app under different network conditions.; and while measuring power usage.

Results: Infolysis acquired experience and documentation on which factors and parameters may affect the performance of chatbot apps and up to what degree of severity. 5G-Bot experiment gave the opportunity to Infolysis to create a performance map under different scenarios, KPIs and metrics.

Infolysis says “I added value to the performance credibility of chatbot applications and improved users QoE!”

Testing of cellular grid in 4G towards 5G network context

Comsensus have sensors to automatically track equipment overheating, energy consumption, the quality of the power in the grid, moisture level, etc. and that the automatically collected in-situ data integrates with the company IT infrastructure.

The experiment carried out on the TRIANGLE testbed was called “Cellular Grid: Cellular Networks for Real-Time Monitoring of Smart Grid.”

The scope in the smart grid industry has been extended to cover also elements like distributed energy resources, electric vehicles, protection relays, and metering devices, where wired communication is not cost effective to install and maintain. 5G can have comparable performance to wired infrastructure, allowing to discretize and network individual grid elements, which can then implement intelligent sensors and switching decisions to isolate faults, reroute power and self-heal the grid. This project evaluates the connectivity requirements of smart grid applications in 5G.

The objective of the experiment allowed Comsensus to emulate their PMU/PQM devices use in different real life (LTE Cat-3, LTE Cat-M1, LTE Cat-NB1) network scenarios and thereby appropriately select the technology and/or adjust their design.

Results: The Testbed was used to test the wireless link performance for different location and user density. The KPIs measured during the experiment include end-to-end delay and throughput. The results of the experiment confirmed that low throughput uplink with real-time constraints are viable using LTE Cat-3 even in the case of challenging channel conditions. In the high throughput scenario, the target throughput could not be reached in any of the predefined channel conditions.

Comsensus says “Thanks to TRIANGLE we were able shorten the product design cycle, obtain a set of measurements in a controlled environment & experiment with technologies not yet available commercially”

Please refer to the TRIANGLE website for the full details here: Showcase

Calling all 5G Mobile Application Developers!

The TRIANGLE testbed is open for applications from now until 14th September 2018 17.00 CET. We are offering SMEs with a mobile application that can clearly benefit from using 5G, the opportunity to test these applications on a state-of-the-art testbed to preview their performance. We have specific funding for this call of €45,000 (including VAT) to support a minimum number of 3 applications with a maximum amount of €15,000 (including VAT) each.

This testbed is located in the University of Malaga but can be accessed remotely. The Testbed enables a preview on how the application would perform in 5G network conditions. It contains Virtual Machines to install servers, provides Mobile Edge Computing capabilities, commercial phones (Android and iOS) to run the app, an extensive set of test cases and many other features. The Testbed provides opportunities to measure Quality of Experience for multi-media applications, in particular, those needing MPEG DASH support, which can be useful for streaming HD video, VR and other applications.

You can use this opportunity to save on your infrastructure costs and get some expert input on how to test your application so that it is 5G ready and future-proofed.

Also, if you have a hardware (such as NB-IoT) or VR application that does not qualify for this funded open call, please get in touch with us as we have a limited availability to accept applications without funding –the testbed can still be used with no charge for now.

Be sure to register your interest with a simple application form.

TRIANGLE 5G Testbed available for testing!

The TRIANGLE testbed is still open for applications until the end of November 2018. We are offering SMEs the opportunity to test their 5G applications and devices on a state-of-the-art testbed. This testbed is located in Malaga University but can be accessed remotely once we have the device or application in question on the testbed. Please make use of this opportunity to save on your infrastructure costs and get some expert input on how to test your device or application so that it is 5G ready for the competition coming along with the launch of 5G networks from 2020. Register your interest with a simple application form.

New features from TNO Extension on the TRIANGLE Testbed

Based in The Hague in the Netherlands, TNO is one of a growing international network comprised of leading scientific institutes, companies with ambitious development profiles, universities and other partners in knowledge. Companies, public-sector bodies and social organisations work with TNO in public-private partnerships Transfer Knowledge designed specifically for SMEs. TNO innovations are transformed into products and into economic activity.

TNO has partnered with TRIANGLE to:

  1. Deliver a universal, scalable cloud platform ready to serve various TRIANGLE testbed users who can fully manage the lifecycle of their network services.
  2. Allow for experimentation with demanding media applications and enhance a content-consumer experience due to the integration with the orchestrated cloud.

Workshop on End-to-end Performance Evaluation of Services, Aplications and Devices in 5G Networks

This workshop is devoted to the dissemination of the results of the project TRIANGLE: 5G applications and devices benchmarking. The efforts for demonstrating the performance of 5G devices, services and apps facing the challenging requirements that 5G poses have been a very active research area during the last year. Moreover, with the release of the first version of 5G NR standard in December 2017, the activities in this field have been intensified. In this sense, there are a wave of initiatives from mobile operators, manufactures and research institutions for demonstrating 5G uses cases (enhanced, ultra-reliable low-latency communications, massive IoT, V2X, etc.) in testbed experiments and trials.

At this workshop we look for a meeting place for the exchange of knowledge, experiences and best-practices learned in the different testbeds and trials deployed all over the world. The workshop proposes the organization of activities such as poster presentations, demos and panels, as well as technical papers and keynotes presentations, to facilitate the exchange of the experiences and views between the attendees. The workshop will cover issues related to performance evaluation of connected verticals, network and components towards an end to end network performance evaluation in 4.5G to 5G technology. Specifically the topics includes, but not limited to, advances in modelling, simulation, testbeds, trials, tools, drive tests, KPI and QoE computation; all of them in the context of the end-to-end performance analysis of mobile applications, services and devices.

Submission Information:

We kindly ask participants to send their contributions to

Contributions may include figures and tables, but must not exceed two 2 pages in IEEE format. All submissions must be in PDF format.

Improved versions of selected papers will be invited for possible publication in a special issue of Wiley’s Internet Technology Letters

Workshop Chairs:

Almudena Díaz Zayas, Universidad de Málaga, Spain – e-mail:

Pedro Merino, University of Málaga, Spain – e-mail:

Michael Dieudonné, Keysight Labs – e-mail:

Germán. C. Madueño, Keysight Technologies, Denmark – email:

Important Dates:

– Contribution submission: May 31, 2018 June 11, 2018 (Extended deadline)

More information on the ISWCS 2018 website.

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